Frost days per year - (ECMWF)


Frost days per year (ECMWF Min daily temp < 0° C)


Number of frost days (temp < 0° C) per year for the timeframe 2000 - 2020.

As suggested by FAO, when air temperatures fall below 0 degree celsius, sensitive crops can be injured, with significant effects on production. Water within plants may or may not freeze during a frost event, depending on several avoidance factors. A "freeze" occurs when extracellular water within the plant freezes (i.e. changes from liquid to ice). This may or may not lead to damage of the plant tissue, depending on tolerance factors (e.g. solute content of the cells). A frost event becomes a freeze event when extracellular ice forms inside of the plants. Freeze injury occurs when the plant tissue temperature falls below a critical value where there is an irreversible physiological condition that is conducive to death or malfunction of the plant cells

The data comes from ECMWF ERA5 Land hourly reanalysis dataset that is reduced to daily minimums.

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)

Source data

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)

ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5.


ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past.

Spatial resolution

The pixel size is 0.1 deg (approx. 11 km at the equator)

Pixel size: 11 x 11 km (0.1 deg)

Temporal resolution

ERA5-Land data is available from 1981 to three months from real-time.

Monthly aggregates have been calculated based on the ERA5-Land hourly values of each parameter.